Phase I - Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)
A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) is a preliminary assessment on a property or a group of properties to gather historical and current or potential special resource information regarding the environmental status of a site. There are five steps in a Phase I ESA: records review, site reconnaissance, interviews with knowledgeable parties, analysis of gathered information and the preparation of the report.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Albuquerque and Sheep Springs, New Mexico
dse conducted four Phase I ESAs modified to include soil sampling and analysis at four sites located in Albuquerque and Sheep Springs, New Mexico, Texarkana, Arkansas, and Rocksprings, Texas for the FAA. Based on prior experience, the FAA determined that significant levels of hydrocarbon constituents, metals and/or PCB contamination in the soil could have resulted from previous practices.
In order to determine if contamination requiring remediation was present, a Phase I ESA was performed at each site. The investigations included background research regarding past operations and practices as well as sampling of shallow soils at each site. The format and requirements of the investigations were complied with ASTM Standard E1527-05, Standard Practice for ESAs: Phase I ESA Process. In addition to the ASTM requirements, collection and analysis of shallow depth soils were incorporated into the investigations for each site.
U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), Region 8
Montana, Utah, South Dakota
dse performed eight Phase I ESAs on multiple sites located in the mountain states. These sites were being considered for either purchase or lease for construction of new federal buildings or for divestiture and required reports with a short turnaround. The Cedar City, UT site required additional review of cultural resources and a biological assessment. The site was also reviewed by the SHPO for Piute Indian significance and a potential infestation of prairie dogs, a Utah threatened species. One site included seven parcels of closed EPA Brownfield Sites with former PCB contamination. Another was a former Navy FUDS site with six large buildings and a former DLA metals depository facility.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Texas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Ohio
The FDIC insures loans with banks nationwide. When a bank goes out of business, the FDIC takes over the asset properties securing the debt. Sometimes, the borrower defaults on the loan and the FDIC becomes the owner of the property. When this happens, the FDIC requires that a Phase I ESA be performed on the property before it can be put up for auction. The properties that the FDIC owns range from commercial/industrial, residential and undeveloped lands. To date, dse has completed Phase I ESAs on twelve FDIC sites in Texas, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Ohio.
U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
Fort Worth, Texas
dse provided training in Phase I/Phase II ESAs to the GSA’s real estate and environmental personnel from the Fort Worth and Denver offices. dse developed training materials and prepared manuals for trainees. dse also customized and prepared training exercises to help trainees develop skills and show examples of the major components of the Phase I/Phase II concepts and presented a three-day multi-media course that focused on ASTM and AAI requirements.
U.S. Department of the Army
dse performed an extensive EBS on 1,284 acres of the 14,995 acre Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP) facility. The purpose of the EBS was to survey the environmental setting, evaluate the environmental impacts of past practices and assess all areas of interest for the purpose of completing the conveyance of the LAAP from the U.S. Department of Army to the State of Louisiana.
The project addressed all five steps in an EBS: records review, site reconnaissance, interviews with knowledgeable parties, analysis of gathered information, and developing the report. dse reviewed over 200 buildings and 15 major tenant leases, comprising a total of over 300,000 square feet. dse’s tasks included compiling the new EBS report with a previously completed EBS and other documents, to prepare one comprehensive report. The draft EBS report was produced in less than eight weeks to meet project deadlines.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
These assessments were conducted on behalf of the Property Owners by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6 Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TBA) program. The EPA Region 6 Brownfields Team funded the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Fort Worth District to execute the work reflected in these reports. These Phase I ESAs were requested by the designated User as part of their due diligence to assess the current status of environmental conditions and compliance at the Subject Properties. A records review was conducted of available records of public use for indications of Recognized Environmental Conditions (REC) or concerns. Some documents reviewed included: historical/current aerial photographs, historical city directories, area related geologic/hydrogeologic information, flood plain maps, wetlands maps and others, and depending on Scope, a review request to the State’s Historical Preservation Office. Site reconnaissance of the Site was conducted in an attempt to identify past and present uses of the Site and adjoining properties, the Site’s physical setting, and any obvious environmental conditions. Interviews were attempted to gather information about the Site’s environmental status from people knowledgeable about the Site and surrounding properties. The gathered information was analyzed to produce a report and recommendations.
Phase II - Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)
A Phase II ESA is an assessment to gather physical information on the soil, groundwater and/or surface water conditions at a site. This process usually involves obtaining and reviewing relevant state or client documentation, preparing a site specific health and safety plan, contacting the utility locating agencies, procurement of drilling, laboratory, field equipment and other subcontracted services. Field work is then performed and typically includes advancing soil borings and test probes, installing monitoring wells, collecting test data from soil and water samples for laboratory analysis, and mapping sample locations.
U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
Montana, Utah, South Dakota
dse performed eight Phase II ESAs on multiple sites located in the mountain states. These sites were being considered for either purchase or lease for construction of new federal buildings or for divestiture and required reports with a short turnaround. One site included seven parcels of closed EPA Brownfield Sites with former PCB contamination. Another was a former Navy FUDS site with six large buildings and a former DLA metals depository facility that required the collection and analysis of an extensive number of soil samples.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Albuquerque and Sheep Springs, New Mexico
dse conducted Phase I ESAs modified to include Phase II ESA soil sampling and analysis at four sites located in Albuquerque and Sheep Springs, New Mexico, Texarkana, Arkansas, and Rocksprings, Texas for the FAA. Based on prior experience, the FAA determined that significant levels of hydrocarbon constituents, metals, and/or PCB contamination in the soil could have resulted from previous practices.
These Phase II ESAs included soil sampling and analysis. Samples were collected at various locations at each of the sites and analyzed for petroleum contamination, volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and characteristic hazardous waste metals. The sample analyses were conducted by a laboratory utilizing USEPA approved analytical methods.
dse developed an Quality Assurance Plan that provided the minimum requirements for the chemical analysis of the environmental samples for the project. The plan was designed to: (1) monitor the performance of the measurement systems to maintain statistical control and provide rapid feedback so that corrective measures could be taken before data quality was compromised and; (2) verify that reported data were sufficiently complete, comparable, representative, unbiased and precise so as to be suitable for the intended use.
Texas A&M University System
Since contamination was already known to exist on this site, the primary objective was to gather enough information so that the client could make a rough estimate of potential treatment and disposal costs with either minor resurfacing, or major construction. The practical concern was to determine the quantity of hydrocarbon affected soil that would require special handling, treatment and disposal should it be exposed in the course of construction. The client also desired limited additional sampling conducted to determine if chlorinated solvents had migrated onto the site from an off-site source and what additional data would be necessary to form the basis for an innocent owner/operator certificate application for the site.
Cleveland Partners, LLC
This site consisted of a 0.66 acre tract of commercially developed land. The purpose of the assessment was to supplement a Phase I ESA with the collection and analysis of groundwater and soil samples. dse gauged and sampled two monitoring wells and sampled shallow soils in four areas of possible impact identified in the Phase I ESA where former equipment and a drainage swale were located. dse reviewed state, city and previous contractor’s documents to validate previous findings. These documents also stated that an UST was previously installed at the site, which could have been another possible contamination source.
Phase II - Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) Dry Cleaners
dse offers assessments of dry cleaning operations, which can be helpful in determining potential problem areas associated with the chemical usage. Resolution of any problem areas can lead to time and money savings, as well as decreased chance of contamination from the chemical usage. These assessments can include review of state, city, owner and equipment records, a 500 foot walking survey, drilling, laboratory analysis, locating utilities, geological research and report preparation and submission.
The Colony Joint Venture - Hi-Tech Cleaners
The Colony, Texas
In connection with a commercial property transaction, dse was engaged to investigate this dry cleaning facility. dse installed monitoring wells, collected soil and groundwater samples to determined the source of the contamination, direction of groundwater flow and the extent of the dispersal. dse prepared and submitted various applications and reports to the TCEQ. The groundwater and contaminant plume remediation was to be continued by the TCEQ.
SA 5 Star Dry Cleaners #5
San Antonio, Texas
The purpose of this assessment was to meet TCEQ requirements to enter into the DCRP Fund. dse installed a groundwater monitoring well at the site and collected soil and groundwater samples. The impacts due to the dry cleaner’s activities seemed to be confined to the soils on the site and had not migrated to neighboring properties. The groundwater did not indicate the presence of any dry cleaning solvents.
Country Square Shopping Center
As part of due diligence for transfer of the property, VOCs were discovered in the soil and perched groundwater. This site contained two dry cleaning facilities. dse provided operations and maintenance on the two previously installed SVE systems, soil and groundwater sampling, an asbestos management plan, compliance audits, negotiations with both dry cleaning operations and assistance with dry cleaning machine replacements.
5 Star Matlock I General Partnership - Comet Cleaners
This site was entered into the VCP and dse continued to maintain the site as outlined by the TCEQ. The groundwater in the vicinity was delineated to drinking water standards, and was not expected to require further delineation. The Comet Cleaners had been operated by three different owners since approximately 1990. Use of PCE as the dry-cleaning solvent was discontinued in 1998 and was switched to Exxon 2000DF, a synthetic petroleum derivative. No known significant spills of PCE occurred, however, groundwater data suggested a spill may have occurred in the location at the rear of the dry cleaning facility where the trucks would have parked for delivery of dry cleaning solvents. dse prepared the application for this location to be entered into the DCRP fund.
Thirty Oaks Shopping Ctr - Comet Dry Cleaning & Laundry 6101, Inc.
Fort Worth, Texas
The site has an active dry cleaner which used PCE from 1981 to 1995 when its dry cleaning process was converted to synthetic petroleum (Exxon DF2000 or equivalent). PCE impacts to surface and subsurface soils were identified in soil samples collected during environmental site assessments conducted for property divestiture purposes. The PCE impacts are believed to be due to accidental minor releases of PCE to the surface in the alley outside of the back door to the dry cleaners. dse submitted the APAR for the site to the VCP and believes that the site has been adequately investigated and anticipates that the case will soon be closed by the VCP. dse prepared the application for this location in the DCRP fund.
Phase III - Cleanup and Remediation
Soil vapor extraction, air stripping, natural attenuation and excavation, removal and disposal operations at commercial, industrial, retail and governmental sites. Delineation and removal of petroleum solvent, lead-based paint and metals impacted soils at a large former fabrication facility in Houston, Texas. Recovery trench for a pump to treat system at a former dry cleaner facility in Farmer’s Branch, Texas.
Ecology and Environment (E&E)
Contact: Mr. Paul James, 368 Pleasant View Drive, Lancaster, New York 14086, 214-245-1007
With E&E as a prime, dse is one of only three consultants chosen to work on the TCEQ DCRP contract. The DCRP is a "State Lead" program in which all assessment and remediation of environmental impacts at eligible dry cleaner sites becomes the responsibility of the TCEQ contractor(s). Dry cleaner operators or property owners are eligible for the DCRP after meeting a $5,000 deductible requirement and submitting an Application for Ranking. The DCRP is funded by dry cleaner registration fees and a tax on dry cleaning solvents. To date, dse has worked on 12 projects in Houston, Cypress, Missouri City, Austin, Spring, Fort Worth, Lubbock and Arlington. dse’s responsibilities have included designing, installing and developing groundwater monitor wells and soil borings and collecting soil and groundwater samples. dse has directed the assessment of several facilities including the selection of soil boring and monitor well locations. dse has prepared Health and Safety Plans for all sites worked on within the DCRP. In addition to field work, dse has completed soil and groundwater sampling, oversight of installation of monitor wells by Professional Geoscientists and report completions as directed by TCEQ personnel.
This site is an operating dry cleaner that used PCE for approximately 20 years. A site assessment at an adjacent property indicated that PCE had been released and the client was instructed to perform an assessment by the TCEQ. dse performed an extensive assessment of the affected soil and groundwater that included the installation of more than 20 groundwater monitoring wells located both on-site and off-site. dse prepared and submitted the required documents to the TCEQ and performed extensive quarterly groundwater sampling using low-flow techniques. The sampling results enabled dse to provide groundwater modeling and predict the migration of the contaminant plume. A soil vapor extraction system was designed and installed followed by injections of Regenesis HRC and HRC-X into the groundwater to reduce the amount of impact at the site.
1 Hour Martinizing
In this project, chlorinated hydrocarbon impacts were discovered in the soil and shallow surface infiltration water which were attributed to the on-site dry cleaning operations. Remedial design included excavation of impacted soils (>10 feet below grade) located beneath the building’s slab and installation of a single 10” SVE well and system (shown above) which reduced contaminant levels in remaining impacted soil by more than 60% in the first three months. dse also designed the SVE system and had it manufactured to design specifications, resulting in at 50% savings versus using commercially available systems.
Weston Solutions, Inc. and Koos & Associates
Farmers Branch, Texas
The former dry cleaning operation of St. Stephens Cleaners was suspected to be the cause of impacted soil and perched groundwater on the site and neighboring properties. The former cleaner conducted dry cleaning operations between 1960 and 1992. The suspected contamination source was attributed to releases of PCE from equipment used and storage and handling of PCE in the dry cleaning operations. Immediate remedial actions for source soils and groundwater were warranted due to the off-site migration of groundwater and impacts to a storm water outfall. dse proposed interim response actions which included: 1) Source soils reduction; 2) off-site groundwater mitigation; and 3) DNAPL Capture. 4) Installation of a SVE and emissions treatment systems.
Texas National Guard
dse performed an ILEA of an inactive IFR. Wipe and air samples were collected from representative types of the stored equipment in various locations and conditions to assess the potential for workers to disturb dust within the IFR. The wipe samples exceeded the HUD and TDSHS standard for lead wipe clearance sampling. During abatement, dse collected air and wipe samples during the abatement of lead dust from the equipment stored in the IFR facility to ensure that the containment area and worker protection measures were effective. Samples were also taken to ensure that the results of the equipment cleaning performed by the abatement contractor were effective.
Department of the Navy
NWIRP, McGregor, TX, was 9,700-acre, government-owned/contractor-operated facility with a 50-year history of Naval weapons manufacturing and chemical usage. dse was contracted in June 2009 to provide the annual Long-Term Biological Monitoring and Maintenance services at NWIRP McGregor. dse is currently providing the personnel, materials, equipment, and transportation necessary to maintain, operate, repair, modify, test, and monitor the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) groundwater treatment system, maintain landfill caps and monitor the permeable reactive barrier walls. Investigation data were compiled and interpreted in a series of clear and concise reports. This includes 15 active biowalls (permeable reactive barriers); five onsite capped landfills, a fluidized bed reactor ground water treatment system with includes over 2 million gallons of onsite storage lagoons and 175 ground water monitoring wells. dse with EnSafe as a subcontractor is current the contractor for operations and maintenance of this facility and compliance with Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TPDES) discharge permit limits and regulatory interface.